Fred Whipple Bibliography

Papers, etc.

Most of Whipple’s papers are in the Smithsonian Institution Archives and the Harvard University Archives. There exist oral history interviews from 1976, 1977, 1981, and 2003. For more sources see the AIP Neils Bohr Library.

Other References: Historical

“Fred Whipple Honored,” Sky & Telescope 62, 545 (1981).

Bailey, M.E., S. V. M. Clube, & W. M. Napier, The Origin of Comets (Pergamon Press, 1990).

DeVorkin, David, “SAO During the Whipple Years,” in The New Astronomy: Opening the Electromagnetic Window and Expanding Our View of Planet Earth, ed. by Wayne Orchiston (Springer, Dordrecht, 2005), pp. 229-50.

Doel, Ronald E., Solar System Astronomy in America: Communities, Patronage, and Interdisciplinary Science, 1920-1960 (Cambridge University Press, NY, 1995).

Jacchia, Luigi G. & Fred L. Whipple, “The Harvard Photographic Meteor Programme,” Vistas in Astronomy 2, 982-94 (1956).

McCray, W. Patrick, “Amateur Scientists, the International Geophysical Year, and the Ambitions of Fred Whipple,” Isis 97, 634-58 (2006).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Incentive of a Bold Hypothesis: Hyperbolic Meteors and Comets,” Annals NY Acad Sci 198, 219-224 (1972).

Whipple, Fred L., “Reminiscences of the Space Age,” Galileo, Sept 1979.

Whipple, F.L., “Background of Modern Comet Theory,” Nature 263, 15-19 (1976).

Yeomans, Donald K., Comets; a Chronological History of Observation, Science, Myth, and Folklore (Wiley, NY, 1991).

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Other References: Scientific

Whipple, Fred L., The Collected Contributions of Fred L. Whipple (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, 1972).

Berman, Louis & Fred Lawrence Whipple, “Elements and Ephemeris of Comet J 1927 (Schwassmann-Wachmann), Lick Obs. Bull. 13, 117-19 (1928).

Bower, Ernest Clare & Fred L. Whipple, “Preliminary Elements and Ephemeris of the Lowell Observatory Object,” Lick Obs. Bull. 14, 189-92 (1930).

Bower, Ernest Clare & Fred L. Whipple, “Elements and Ephemeris of the Lowell Observatory Object (Pluto), second paper,” Lick Obs. Bull. 15, 35-42 (1930).

Bower, Ernest Clare & Fred L. Whipple, “The Orbit of Pluto,” PASP 42, 236-40 (1930).

Whipple, Fred L., “A Spectrophotometric Study of the Cepheid Variables Eta Aquilae and Delta Cephei,” Lick Obs. Bull. 16, 1-23 (1932).

Shapley, Harlow, “New Comet Whipple (1933f),” IAU Circular #456 (1933) .

Shapley, Harlow & F.L. Whipple, “New Comet Whipple,” IAU Circular #635 (1937).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Physical Theory of Meteors,” Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 79, 499 (1938).

Whipple, Fred L., Earth, Moon, and Planets (Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1941; Grosset & Dunlap, NY, 1958; Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1963, 1968).

Whipple, Fred L., “Concentrations of the Interstellar Medium,” Ap.J. 104, 1-11 (1946).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Orbits of Meteors Photographed at Two Stations,” Astronomical Journal 54, 53 (1948).

Wyatt, Jr., Stanley P. & Fred L. Whipple, “The Poynting-Robertson Effect on Meteor Orbits,” Ap.J. 111, 134-41 (1950).

Whipple, Fred L., “A Comet Model. I. The Acceleration of Comet Encke,” Ap.J. 111, 375-94 (1950), [reprinted in the centennial edition Ap.J. 525C, 393 (1999) with a modern commentary by Michael J.S. Belton]

Whipple, Fred L., “A Comet Model. II. Physical Relations for Comets and Meteors,” Ap.J. 113, 464-74 (1951)

Whipple, Fred L., “The Baker Super-Schmidt Meteor Cameras,” Astronomical Journal 56, 144 (1951).

Thomas, Richard N. & Fred L. Whipple, “The Physical Theory of Meteors. II. Astroballistic Heat Transfer,” Ap.J. 114, 448-65 (1951).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Physical Theory of Meteors. VII. On Meteor Luminosity and Ionization,” Ap.J. 121, 241-49 (1955).

Whipple, Fred L., “A Comet Model. III. The Zodiacal Light,” Ap.J. 121, 750-70 (1955).

Menzel, Donald H. & Fred L. Whipple, “The Case for H2O Clouds on Venus,” PASP 67, 161-68 (1955).

Whipple, Fred L., “Meteors,” PASP 67, 367-86 (1955).

Hawkins, Gerald S., Curtis L. Hemenway, & Fred L. Whipple, “The Harvard Radio-Meteor Program,” Astronomical Journal 61, 179 (1956).

Hynek, J. A., Karl G. Henize, & Fred L. Whipple, “Report on the Precision Optical Tracking Program for Artificial Earth-Satellites,” Astronomical Journal 64, 52 (1956).

Whipple, Fred L, “Photographic Meteor Orbits and Their Distribution in Space,” Astronomical Journal 59, 201-17 (1954).

Whipple, Fred L, “Evidence for a Comet Belt beyond Neptune ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 51, 711-18 (1964).

Whipple, Fred L, “The History of the Solar System,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 52, 565-94 (1964).

Whipple, F.L. & R.P. Stefanik, “On the Physics and Splitting of Cometary Nuclei,” SAO Special Report #182 (1965).

Whipple, Fred L, Richard B. Southworth, & Carl S. Nilsson, Studies in Interplanetary Particles (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, 1967).

Hamid, S. E., B.G. Marsden, & F.L. Whipple, “Influence of a Comet Belt beyond Neptune on the Motions of Periodic Comets,” Astronomical Journal 73, 727-29 (1968).

Meinel, Aden B., Robert R. Shannon, Frederick L. Whipple, & Frank J. Low, “A Large Multiple - Mirror Telescope (MMT) Project,” in Lewis Larmore & Robert W. Poindexter, eds., Instrumentation in Astronomy, Volume 28; proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers seminar-in-depth held in March, 1972 in Tucson, Arizona, USA (SPIE, 1972), pp. 155-60.

Whipple, F.L., “The Origin of Comets,” in Gleb Aleksandrovich Chebotarev, E. I. Kazimirchak-Polonskaia, & B. G. Marsden, eds., The Motion, Evolution of Orbits, and Origin of Comets; Proceedings from IAU Symposium no. 45, held in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., August 4-11, 1970Reidel, Dordrecht, 1972), pp. 401-08.

Field, George B. & A.G.W. Cameron, eds., The Dusty Universe: Proceedings of a Symposium Honoring Fred Lawrence Whipple on his Retirement as Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, October 17-19, 1973 (Neale Watson, NY, 1975).

Whipple, F.L. & W.F. Huebner, “Physical Processes in Comets,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 14, 143-72 (1976).

Whipple, Fred, “The Earth as Part of the Universe,” Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 6, 1-8 (1978).

Whipple, Fred L., “On the Nature and Origin of Comets and their Contribution to Planets,” The Moon and Planets 19, 305-15 (1978).

Whipple, Fred, “Rotation and Outbursts of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1,” Astronomical Journal 85, 305 (1980).

Whipple, Fred L., Orbiting the Sun: Planets and Satellites of the Solar System (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981).

Whipple, Fred, “Present Status of the Icy Conglomerate Model,” Ices in the Solar System; Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop, Nice, France, January 16-19, 1984 (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 343-65 [abstract].

Keller, H.U., et al, “First Halley Multicolour Camera Imaging Results from Giotto,” Nature 321, 320 (1986).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Cometary Nucleus: Current Concepts,” ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley’s Comet Vol. 2: Dust and Nucleus (1986), pp. 281-288.

Whipple, Fred L., “Comets in the Space Age,” Ap.J. 341, 1-15 (1989) [1987 Henry Norris Russell Lecture].

Reitsema, H.J., et al, “Dust Distribution in the Inner Coma of Comet Halley — Comparison with Models,” Icarus 81, 31 (1989).

Whipple, Fred L. & Walter F. Huebner, Physics and Chemistry of Comets (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Forest and the Trees,” in Comets in the Post-Halley Era, R.L. Newburn, Jr., M. Neugebauer, and J. Rahe, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1991), vol. 2 , 1259-78. [abstract]

Whipple, Fred L., “A Volatility Index for Comets,” Icarus 98, 108-14 (1992).

Swamy, K.S. Krishna & F.L. Whipple, Physics of Comets, 2nd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Whipple, Fred L., “On the Aging of Comets,” Earth, Moon and Planets 72, 69-78 (1996).

Whipple, F.L., “Note on the Structure of Comet Nuclei,” Planetary and Space Science 47, 301-04 (1999).

Whipple, F.L., “Oort-Cloud and Kuiper-Belt Comets,” Planetary and Space Science 48, 1011-19 (2000).

Cochran, Anita, et al, “The Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR); A NASA Discovery Mission,” Earth, Moon, and Planets 89, 289-300 (2002).

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Other Works: Popularizations, Fiction, etc.

Whipple, Fred L., “How Distant is the Sun?” Sky & Telescope 1, 11 (1941).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Harvard Photographic Meteor Program,” Sky & Telescope 8, 90 (1949).

Whipple, Fred Lawrence, New Horizons in Astronomy (Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC, 1956).

Whipple, Fred L., “Astronomy from the Space Station” Sky & Telescope 12, 151 (1953).

Menzel, Donald H., Fred L. Whipple & Gerard De Vaucouleurs, Survey of the Universe (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1970. [introductory astronomy text]

Whipple, Fred L., “Birth and Death of a Comet,“ Astronomy (January 1974).

Whipple, Fred L., “The Spin of Comets” Scientific American 242, 124 (1980).

Whipple, Fred L. & Daniel W.E. Green, The Mystery of Comets (Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC; Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1985).

Whipple, Fred L., “Discovering the Nature of Comets,” Mercury 15, No. 1, 2-9 (1986).

Whipple, Fred L., “Memorable Observing Experiences — Part I,” Sky & Telescope 84, 134 (1992).

Whipple, Fred L., Letter carried on the STARDUST mission to Comet Wild-2

Fred Whipple

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