Albert Whitford Bibliography

Papers, etc.

Whitford’s papers are at the Mary Lea Shane Archives of Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz library. There are oral history interviews from 1977 and 1978 with Whitford at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

Other References: Historical

DeVorkin, David H., “Electronics in Astronomy: Early Applications of the Photoelectric Cell and Photomultiplier for Studies of Point-Source Celestial Phenomena.,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1205-20 (1985).

Hearnshaw, J. B., The Measurement of Starlight: Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry (Cambridge University Press, NY, 1996)

Stebbins, Joel, The Electrical Photometry of Stars,” PASP 52, 235 (1940).

Whitford, A.E., “American Pioneer in Photoelectric Astronomy,” Sky & Telescope 31, 268 (1966). [Stebbins obituary]

Whitford, A.E., “Directorship of Lick Observatory, 1958-1968,” Oral History interview by Randall Jarrell, 1995 [includes link to transcript]

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Other References: Scientific

Whitford, Albert E., “The Zeeman Effect of the K II Spectrum,” Phys. Rev. 39, 898-904 (1932).

Whitford, Albert E., “The Application of a Thermionic Amplifier to the Photometry of Stars,” Ap.J. 76, 213-23 (1932).

Stebbins, Joel & Albert E. Whitford, “The Diameter of the Andromeda Nebula,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20, 93-98 (1934).

Stebbins, Joel & Albert E. Whitford, “The Magnitude of the Companion of Sirius,” PASP 47, 151-56 (1935).

Whitford, Albert E., “Photoelectric Magnitudes of the Brightest Extra-Galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 83, 424-32 (1936).

Stebbins, Joel & A.E. Whitford, “Absorption and Space Reddening in the Galaxy from the Colors of Globular Clusters,” Ap.J. 84, 132-57 (1936).

Stebbins, Joel & Albert E. Whitford, “Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colors of Extragalactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 86, 247-73 (1937).

Whitford, A.E. & G.E. Kron, “Photoelectric Guiding of Astronomical Telescopes,” Review of Scientific Instruments 8, 78-82 (1937).

Stebbins, Joel & A.E. Whitford, “The Total Light and Color of the Solar Corona of June 8, 1937,” Ap.J. 87, 225-36 (1938).

Stebbins, Joel & A.E. Whitford, “The Magnitudes of the Thirty Brightest Stars in the North Polar Sequence,” Ap.J. 87, 237-56 (1938).

Whitford, Albert E., “Photoelectric Observation of Diffraction at the Moon's Limb,” Ap.J. 89, 472-81 (1939).

Stebbins, Joel, C.M. Huffer, & A.E. Whitford, “Space Reddening in the Galaxy,” Ap.J. 90, 209-29 (1939).

Stebbins, Joel, C.M. Huffer, & A.E. Whitford, “The Colors of 1332 B Stars,” Ap.J. 91, 20-50 (1940).

Whitford, Albert E., “Advantages and Limitations of the Photoelectric Cell in Astronomy,” PASP 52, 244-49 (1940).

Stebbins, Joel, C.M. Huffer, & A.E. Whitford, “The Mean Coefficient of Selective Absorption in the Galaxy,” Ap.J. 92, 193-99 (1940).

Stebbins, Joel, A.E. Whiford, & P. Swings, “A Strong Infra-Red Radiation from Molecular Nitrogen in the Night Sky,” Phys. Rev. 66, 225-26 (1944).

Stebbins, Joel & A.E. Whitford, “Six-Color Photometry of Stars,” Ap.J. 98, 20-32 (1943); 102, 318-46 (1945); 106, 235-42 (1947); 108, 413-28 (1948).

Whitford, A.E., “An Extension of the Interstellar Absorption-Curve,” Ap.J. 107, 102-06 (1948).

Stebbins, Joel & A.E. Whitford, “The Relation between Color Index and Red Shift for Extragalactic Nebulae,” Astronomical Journal 53, 204-05 (1948).

Whitford, A.E., “Infrared Detectors and Their Astronomical Application, ” Harvard College Observatory Monographs 7, 155-68 (1948).

Stebbins, Joel, A.E. Whitford, & H.L. Johnson, “Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colors of Stars in Selected Areas 57, 61 and 68,” Ap.J. 112, 469-76 (1950).

Stebbins, Joel & Albert E. Whitford, “Magnitudes and Colors of 176 Extragalactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 115, 284-91 (1952).

Morgan, W.W., A.E. Whitford, & A.D. Code, “Studies in Galactic Structure. I. A Preliminary Determination of the Space Distribution of the Blue Giants,” Ap.J. 118, 318-22 (1953).

Morgan, W.W., A.D. Code, & A.E. Whitford, “Studies in Galactic Structure. II. Luminosity Classification for 1270 Blue Giant Stars,” Ap.J. Supp. 2, 41-74 (1955).

Whitford, A.E., “Photoelectric Astronomy,” Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics 1, 25-29 (1956).

Whitford, A.E., “The Law of Interstellar Reddening,” Astronomical Journal 63, 201-07 (1958).

Whitford, A.E., “The Distance to the Galactic Center from the Photometry of Objects in the Nuclear Region,” PASP 73, 94-100 (1961).

Whitford, A.E., “Photoelectric Techniques,” Handbuch der Physik 54, 240-88 (1962). [abstract]

Whitford, A.E., “Distribution of Luminosity, Color, and Spectral Energy in Bright Galaxies,” in G.C. McVittie, ed., Problems of Extra-Galactic Research, Proceedings from IAU Symposium no. 15 (Macmillan Press, NY, 1962), pp.27-33.

Sears, R.L. & A.E. Whitford, “Six-Color Photometry of Stars. XII. Colors of Hyades and Subdwarf Stars,” Ap.J. 155, 899-912 (1969).

Whitford, A.E., “Absolute Energy Curves and K-Corrections for Giant Elliptical Galaxies,” Ap.J. 169, 215-20 (1971).

Whitford, A.E., “Dwarf Content of Old Galaxy Populations,” in John R. Shakeshaft, ed., The Formation and Dynamics of Galaxies: Proceedings from IAU Symposium no. 58 held in Canberra, Australia, August 12-15, 1973. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974), pp. 169-72.

Whitford, A.E., “Spectral Scans of the Nuclear Bulge of the Galaxy: Comparison with Other Galaxies,” Ap.J. 226,777-89 (1978).

Frogel, Jay A. & A.E. Whitford, “Luminosity of M Giants in the Nuclear Bulge of the Galaxy,” Ap.J. 259, L7-L11 (1982).

Whitford, A.E. & R.M. Rich, “Metal Content of K Giants in the Nuclear Bulge of the Galaxy,” Ap.J. 274,723-32 (1983).

Whitford, A.E., “The Stellar Population of the Galactic Nuclear Bulge,” PASP 97, 205-13 (1985).

Frogel, Jay A. , et al, “Infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy of Supernova 1986g in NGC 5128-Centaurus A,” Ap.J. 35, L129-L134 (1987).

Frogel, Jay A. & A.E. Whitford, “M Giants in Baade’s Window: Infrared Colors, Luminosities, and Implications for the Stellar Content of E and S0 Galaxies,” Ap.J. 320, 199-237 (1987).

Frogel, Jay A., Terndrup, D. M., V.M. Blanco, & A.E. Whitford, “Galactic Bulge M Giants. II. Content and Structure of the Bulge between b = –3° and –12°, ” Ap.J. 353, 494-523 (1990).

Terndrup, D. M., Jay A. Frogel, & A.E. Whitford, “Galactic Bulge M Giants. III. Near-infrared Spectra and Implications for the Stellar Content of E and S0 Galaxies, ” Ap.J. 357, 453-76 (1990).

Spaenhauer, Andreas, B.F Jones, & A.E. Whitford, “Proper Motions of Bulge Stars,” Astronomical Journal 103, 297-302 (1992).

Whitford, A.E., “Do the OH/JR Stars within 100 pc of the Galactic Center Belong to the Disk Population?” in Herwig DeJonghe & Harm Jan Habing, eds., Galactic Bulges: Proceedings of the 153rd Symposium of the International Astronomical Union Held in Ghent, Belgium, August 17-22, 1992, (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 339-40.

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Other Works: Popularizations, History, etc.

Whitford, A.E. & J.W. Slowey, “A Model of the Solar Neighborhood,” Sky & Telescope 14, 496 (1955).

Whitford, A.E., “Photoelectric Astronomy,” Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics 1, 25-29 (1956).

Whitford, A.E., “The Plan for a New American Observatory,” PASP 68, 115 -17 (1956).

National Research Council, Ground-Based Astronomy, a Ten-Year Program: A Report Prepared by the Panel on Astronomical Facilities for the Committee on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences (National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1964). [popularly known as the Whitford Report; a short version appeared in Science 146, 1641-48 (1964).]

Whitford, A.E., “New Santa Cruz Headquarters for Lick Observatory,” Sky & Telescope 32, 328 (1966).

Whitford, A.E., “Astronomy and Astronomers at the Mountain Observatories,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 198, p. 202 - 210 (1972).

Albert Whitford

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