Edwin Hubble Bibliography

Papers, etc.

Hubble’s Papers are at the Huntington Library with a microform copy at the AIP Center for History of Physics. Hubble is discussed in many oral history interviews at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives. See also Hubble, Edwin P., The Edwin Hubble Papers; previously unpublished manuscripts on the extragalactic nature of spiral nebulae, edited, annotated, and with an historical introduction by Norriss S. Hetherington (Pachart Pub. House, Tucson, 1990).

Other References: Historical

Berendzen, R., R. Hart, & D. Seeley, Man Discovers the Galaxies (Science History Pubs., NY, 1976).

Bertotti, B., et al, eds., Modern Cosmology in Retrospect (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).

Brashear, R.W. & N.S. Hetherington, “The Hubble-van Maanen Conflict over Internal Motions in Spiral Nebulae: Yet More New Information on an Already Old Topic,” Vistas in Astronomy 34, 4, 415-23 (1991).

Chapman, David M.F., “Edwin P. Hubble and the Extragalactic Nebulae,” JRASC 93, 258 (1999).

Christianson, Gale E., “Edwin Hubble: Reluctant Cosmologist,” in Historical Development of Modern Cosmology, ASP Conference Proceedings Vol. 252, ed. by Vicent J. Martínez, Virginia Trimble, and María Jesús Pons-Bordería (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2001), pp.145-56.

Christianson, Gale E., “Edwin Hubble: A Biographical Retrospective,” Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series, Vol. 2: Measuring and Modeling the Universe, ed. W. L. Freedman (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004), pp. 9-21.

Crowe, M. J., Modern Theories of the Universe: From Herschel to Hubble (Dover, NY, 1994).

Edmunds, M.G., “Origin of the Hubble Sequence,” Nature 337, 600-01 (1989).

Gingerich, Owen, “Shapley, Hubble, and Cosmology,” in Edwin Hubble Centennial Symposium, U. of California, Berkeley 1989, ed. by Richard G. Kron, A.S.P. conference series v. 10 (Astron. Soc. Pacific, San Francisco, 1999), p. 19-21.

Gingerich, Owen, “The Scale of the Universe: A Curtain Raiser in Four Acts and Four Morals,” PASP 108, 1068-72 (1996).

Goldsmith, Donald, “Edwin Hubble and the Universe Outside our Galaxy,” in Neyman, Jerzy, ed., The Heritage of Copernicus: Theories “Pleasing to the Mind” (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1974).

Hetherington, Norriss S., “Edwin Hubble and a Relativistic, Expanding Model of the Universe,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 10, 509, 473-80 (1971).

Hetherington, Norriss S., “Edwin Hubble on Adriaan van Maanen’s Internal Motions in Spiral Nebulae,” Isis 65, 390-93 (1974).

Hetherington, Norriss S., “Edwin Hubble’s Examination of Internal Motions of Spiral Nebulae,” QJRAS 15, 392-418 (1974).

Hetherington, Norriss S., “Philosophical Values and Observation in Edwin Hubble’s Choice of a Model of the Universe,” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 13, 41-67 (1982).

Hetherington, N., “Edwin Hubble: Legal Eagle,” Nature 319, 189-90 (1986).

Hetherington, N., “Edwin Hubble’s Cosmology,” in Edwin Hubble Centennial Symposium, Univ. of California, Berkeley 1989, ed. by Richard G. Kron (A.S.P. conference series v. 10), p. 22-24.

Hetherington, N., “Hubble’s Cosmology,” Amer. Scientist 78, 2, 142 (1990).

Hetherington, Noriss S. & Ronald S. Brashear, “Walter S. Adams and the Imposed Settlement Between Edwin Hubble and Adriaan van Maanen,” JHA 23 Pt. 1, 53-56 (1992).

Hetherington, Norriss S., Ed., Encyclopedia of Cosmology (Garland Publishing, NY, 1993).

Hetherington, Norriss S., Hubble’s Cosmology; A Guided Study of Selected Texts (Pachart, Tucson, 1996).

Hodge, Paul, “Hubble’s Distance Indicators,” The Extragalactic Distance Scale, Proceedings of the ASP 100th Anniversary Symposium, Victoria, Canada, June 29-July 1, 1988, ASP Conference series, v. 4 (Astron. Soc. Pacific, San Francisco, 1988) p. 1-5 ).

Hubble, Edwin Powell, The Nature of Science, and Other Lectures (Huntington Library, San Marino, CA, 1954).

Jones, Brian, “The Legacy of Edwin Hubble,” Astronomy 17, 12, 38-44 (1989).

Kippenhahn, R., “Edwin Powell Hubble and Cosmology,” Mem. Soc. Astron. Italy 62, 533-552 (1991) [in Origin and Evolution of the Universe. A Hubble Centenary Conference. Proceedings. 3. Venice Conference on Cosmology and Philosophy, Venice (Italy), 15-16 Dec 1989].

Kirshner, Robert P., “Hubble’s Diagram and Cosmic Expansion,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101, 8-13 (2004).

Kragh, Helge, Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 1996).

Kragh, Helge & Robert W. Smith, “Who Discovered the Expanding Universe?” History of Science 41, 141-62 (2003).

Munitz, Milton K., ed., Theories of the Universe: from Babylonian Myth to Modern Science (Free Press, Macmillan, 1957).

Nemiroff, Robert & Jerry Bonnell, Hubble, Humason, and Hubble’s Constant

Nussbaumer, Harry & Lydia Bieri, Discovering the Expanding Universe (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2009).

Osterbrock, Donald E., “The Appointment of a Physicist as Director of the Astronomical Center of the World, JHA 23, 155 (1992).

Osterbrock,Donald E., Joel A. Gwinn, & Ronald S. Brashear, “Edwin Hubble and the Expanding Universe,” Scientific American 269, 1, 84-89 (1993).

Parker, Barry, “Discovery of the Expanding Universe,” Sky & Telescope 72, 227 (1986).

Sandage, Allan, “Beginnings of Observational Cosmology in Hubble’s Time: Historical Overview,” in M. Livio, S.M. Fall and P. Madau, eds., The Hubble Deep Field (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998 ).

Sandage, Allan, “The First 50 Years At Palomar: 1949 –1999 The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 37, 445-86 (1999).

Smith, Robert, The Expanding Universe (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1982).

Smith, Robert, “Edwin P. Hubble and the Transformation of Cosmology,” Physics Today 43, 4, 52-58 (1990).

Trefil, James & Margaret Hindle Hazen, Good Seeing: A Century of Science at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902-2002 (Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC, 2001).

Trimble, Virginia, “H0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant 1925-1975,” PASP 108, 1073-1082 (1996).

Trimble, Virginia, “Extragalactic Distance Scales: H0 from Hubble (Edwin) to Hubble (Hubble Telescope),” Space Science Reviews 79, 793-834 (1997).

Van Den Bergh, Sidney, “Golden Anniversary of Hubble’s Classification System,” Sky & Telescope 52, 410-14 (1976).

Van Den Bergh, Sidney, “Shapley and Hubble: Different Views Brought Galaxies Into Focus” [letter], Physics Today 57, 9, 15 (2004).

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Other References: Scientific

Hubble, E.P., “The Variable Nebula NGC 2261,” Ap.J. 44, 190-97 (1916) [Discovery of what is now called Hubble’s Variable Nebula].

Hubble, E.P., “Recent Changes in the Variable Nebula NGC 2261,” Ap.J. 45, 351-53 (1917).

Hubble, Edwin Powell, Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1920). [Ph.D. dissertation]

Seares, Frederick H. & Edwin P. Hubble, “The Color of the Nebulous Stars,” Ap.J. 52, 8-22 (1920).

Hubble, Edwin, “A General Study of Diffuse Galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 56, 162-99 (1922).

Hubble, Edwin, “The Source of Luminosity in Galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 56,400-438 (1922).

Hubble, Edwin, “NGC 6822, a Remote Stellar System,” Ap.J. 62, 409 (1925).

Hubble, Edwin P., “Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae,” Pubs. Amer. Astr. Soc. 5, 261-64 (1925); reprinted in Observatory 48, 139-42 (1925).

Hubble, Edwin, “A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System: Messier 33,” Ap.J. 63, 236-74 (1926).

Hubble, Edwin, “Extragalactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 64, 321-69 (1926).

Hubble, E.P., “The Classification of Spiral Nebulae,” Observatory, 50, 276-81 (1927).

Hubble, E., “A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31,” Ap.J. 69, 103-58 (1929). [reprinted in Ap.J. 525, 150 (2000) with commentary by Arthur D. Code.]

Humason, Milton L., “The Large Radial Velocity of N.G.C. 7619,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 15 167-68 (1929).

Hubble, E., “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 15, 168-73 (1929) [also here with Commentary by Robert Kirshner, 2003]

Hubble, E., “Distribution of Luminosity in Elliptical Nebulae,” Ap.J. 71, 231-76 (1930).

Hubble, Edwin and Milton L. Humason, “The Velocity-Distance Relation among Extra-Galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 74, 43-80 (1931) [reprinted in Ap.J. 525, 214 (2000) with commentary by Allan Sandage.]

Hubble, E., “Nebulous Objects in Messier 31 Provisionally Identified as Globular Clusters,” Ap.J. 76, 44 (1932).

Hubble, Edwin., “The Distribution of Extra-Galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 79, 8-76 (1934).

Hubble, Edwin and Milton L. Humason, “The Velocity-distance Relation for Isolated Extragalactic Nebulae,”Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 20, 264-68 (1934).

Hubble, Edwin, “The Distribution of Extra-galactic Nebulae,” Ap.J. 79, 8-76 (1934).

Hubble, E., Redshifts in the Spectra of Nebulae, (The Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1934). [Halley Lecture]

Hubble, Edwin, “Angular Rotations of Spiral Nebulae,” Ap.J. 81, 334-35 (1935).

Hubble, E., and Richard C. Tolman, “Two Methods of Investigating the Nature of the Nebular Red-shift ,” Ap.J. 82, 302-37 (1935).

Hubble, E., “The Luminosity Function of Nebulae. I. The Luminosity Function of Resolved Nebulae as Indicated by Their Brightest Stars,” Ap.J. 84, 158-79 (1936).

Hubble, E., “The Luminosity Function of Nebulae. II. The Luminosity Function as Indicated by Residuals in Velocity-Magnitude Relations,” Ap.J. 84, 270-95(1936).

Hubble, E., “Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae,” Ap.J. 84, 517-54 (1936).

Hubble, E., “Red-shifts and the Distribution of Nebulae,” MNRAS 97, 506 (1937).

Hubble, Edwin P., The Observational Approach to Cosmology (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1937). [Rhodes Memorial Lectures delivered at Oxford in 1936.]

Hubble, Edwin, “The Direction of Rotation in Spiral Nebulae,” Ap.J. 97, 112-18 (1943).

Hubble, Edwin, “First Photographs with the 200-inch Hale Telescope,” PASP 61, 121-24 (1949).

Hubble, E., “The Law of Red Shifts,” MNRAS, 113, 658 (1953). [George Darwin Lecture]

Hubble, Edwin & Allan Sandage, “The Brightest Variable Stars in Extragalactic Nebulae. I. M31 and M33,” Ap.J. 118, 353-61 (1953).

Humason, M.L., N.U. Mayall, & A.R. Sandage, “Redshifts and Magnitudes of Extragalactic Nebulae,” Astronomical Journal 61, 97-162 (1956).

Sandage, Allan, The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies (Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC, 1984).

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Other Works: Popularizations, History, etc.

Hubble, Edwin, “Novae or Temporary Stars,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 1, 55-58 (1928) [Leaflet #14].

Hubble, Edwin, “A Clue to the Structure of the Universe,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 1, 93-96 (1929) [Leaflet #23].

Hubble, Edwin P., The Realm of the Nebulae (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1936, 1982).

Hubble, Edwin, “Adventures in Cosmology,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3, 120-23 (1938) [Leaflet #115].

Hubble, Edwin, “The Nature of the Nebulae,” PASP 50, 97-110 (1938) [public lecture on receiving the Bruce medal].

Hubble, Edwin, “The 200-Inch Telescope and Some Problems It May Solve,” PASP 59, 153-67 (1947) [Morrison lecture, 1947].

Edwin Hubble

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