Physics 216: Introductory Physics Laboratory

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Sonoma State University

Fall 2018

Class: Th 1-3:40 pm, Darwin 311

Instructor: Dr. Hongtao Shi

Phone: 664-2013


Office: Darwin 300J

Office Hours: M 9:45-11:00 am, Th 3:45-5:00 pm, and by appointment

Course Description: This is a lab based course, accompanying Physics 214. By performing the experiments listed on the Laboratory Schedule page, you will deepen your understanding of the material in Physics 214 and develop your experimental technique. Laboratories concerning waves, electromagnetism, and optics will be performed.

Course Objectives: Students taking this laboratory course are required to demonstrate (a) knowledge, understanding and use of the principles of physics, (b) ability to design and/or conduct experiments and/or observations using physics principles and instrumentation, and (c) ability to properly analyze and interpret data and experimental uncertainty in order to make meaningful comparisons between experimental measurements/observation and theory.

By the end of this course it is to be expected that the students will have acquired an understanding of the following concepts and principles: Oscillations and Waves, Electric Field and Potential, Ohm's Law, DC Circuits, Kirchhoff's Junction and Loop Rules, Capacitors and RC Decay, Sources of the Magnetic Field, Faraday's Law, Properties of Light such as Interference, Diffraction and Polarization, Mirrors and Lenses, and Image Formation.

Prerequisite: Previous or concurrent enrollment in Physics 214.

Text: All lab-related materials will be posted on the web. Make sure you download those materials and finish the prelab BEFORE each lab. Major reference book: Samuel J. Ling,
Jeff Sanny, and Bill Moebs, Openstax University Physics.

Vol. 1:
Vol. 2:
Vol. 3:

Laboratory Schedule

Grading Policy: The lowest laboratory grade will be dropped when your class grade is calculated, with the total worth 70%; three (3) quizzes are worth 30%.

Course Grade Percent Course Grade Percent Course Grade Percent























Below 60


Prelaboratory Work: Each lab is worth 100 points, including prelaboratory work (max = 10 points) and performing all the required work in the lab and completing the lab report (max = 90 points). The prelab work has a few questions to help you prepare for that week's laboratory. Hand in your prelab work before the laboratory starts.

Laboratory Notebooks and Reports: All laboratory reports are typed on a word processor. Draw in sketches or tables if your graphics and spreadsheet capabilities are limited. Please purchase a lab notebook that has the carbonless copy feature to record your original data. You will tear out the copies and hand them in along with the typed lab report at the beginning of the next laboratory period.

Other Policies: Computer assisted analysis of the data, where appropriate, is expected. You can use DataStudio or Microsoft Excel or other graphical software that you are familiar with to plot your data and perform least squares fitting routines that handle uncertainty estimates. EXCEPT FOR EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCES, ABSENCES BEYOND ONE LAB CAN NOT BE MADE UP.

Laboratory Report Format: Total worth 90 points. Always include your name, date and name(s) of laboratory partner(s).


Drawing of experimental setup

5 pts


Record of raw data obtained with labels
Notes on data as you take it. Include all the data tables and graphs.

10 pts


Brief description how you did the experiment, i.e., procedure

10 pts


Experimental design, data analysis, and results including tables and graphs

40 pts


Answer all the questions at end

20 pts



5 pts

1) A simple sketch is best. This is a very useful skill when you design your own experiments.

2) Your original data should be attached to your report. Plan ahead and organize your data taking before any measurement. This is best done before the laboratory period. All data tables need to be labeled with what the quantity is and the appropriate units.

3) Briefly describe how you implemented the experiment.

4) When it comes to your own design and exploration, make sure you include all the details, such as principles or theory, experimental procedures, data tables, and graphs.

Data reduction, background subtraction, and error estimates are in this section. The computer can be used to great advantage to draw the graphs, to do the least squares fitting, and to provide you with error estimates based on the scatter in the data. All graphs must have a title and axes labeled with units. The conclusions drawn from each graph need to be described in complete sentences (one or two is usually sufficient). A graph with no statement as to what it means is not going to earn the maximum grade.

5) Answer any questions at the end of the write up. Do the results fit the theory within errors? If the final result is many standard deviations from the expected value, try to find reasons why.

6) A concise summary comparing theory and experiment demonstrates you know what you are doing and makes for a professional report. The summary should be brief and based on your experimental results.

Additional factors:

a) Have you covered a sufficient range of input parameters to really test the theory? The test of a theory is more convincing if you use extreme values of the parameters as well as values in the middle.

b) The instructor is also looking at your original data to see if you made initial trials before taking the final data set. Does the technique and final set up reflect knowledge gained on initial trials? Real science seldom goes right on the first try.

c) Are some points repeated to check repeatability? Have you looked over the data while you are taking it and retaken suspicious points? If you analyze your data before taking down the equipment, you may be able to spot troublesome points, and repeat them.

d) Overall, have you tried during the laboratory to undertake a credible experiment within the limitations of the available equipment?

e) Do discuss the results with your partners, and perhaps the instructor, if the results seem odd.

Disability: If you have a disability and need special consideration, please contact the Office of Disabled Student Services ( DSS ). Located in Salazar Hall, Room 1049, Phone 664-2677.

Important University policies, such as add/drop classes, cheating and plagiarism, grade appeal procedures, can be found at

Email me if you have questions or comments.

Last updated 08/16/2018