**Department
of Physics and Astronomy**

Class: Th 1-3:40 pm, Darwin 311

Instructor: Dr. Hongtao Shi

Phone:**
**664-2013

Email: hongtao.shi@sonoma.edu

Office: Darwin 300J

Office Hours: M Tu 2-3:30 pm, and by appointment

**Course
Description:** This
is a lab based course, accompanying Physics 214. By performing the experiments
listed on the Laboratory Schedule page, you will
deepen your understanding of the material in Physics 214 and develop your
experimental technique. Laboratories concerning waves, electromagnetism,
and optics will be performed.

**Course
Objectives:** Students
taking this laboratory course are required to demonstrate (a)

**Prerequisite:
**
Previous or concurrent enrollment
in Physics 214.

**Text: ** All lab-related
materials will be posted on the web. Make sure you download those materials
and finish the prelab BEFORE each lab. Major reference book: Samuel J. Ling,

Jeff Sanny, and Bill Moebs, Openstax University Physics (SSU Library Reserves).

Vol. 1: https://openstax.org/details/books/university-physics-volume-1,
SSU Library Call# 8810

Vol. 2:
https://openstax.org/details/books/university-physics-volume-2, SSU
Library Call# 8811

Vol. 3: https://openstax.org/details/books/university-physics-volume-3,
SSU Library Call# 8812

**Grading
Policy:** The
laboratory grade will be based on the best 11
experiments out of 12, worth 70%; three (3) quizzes
are worth 30%.

Course
Grade
| Percent |
Course
Grade |
Percent |
Course
Grade |
Percent |

A | 94-100 |
A- | 90-94 |
||

B+ | 87-90 |
B | 83-87 |
B- | 80-83 |

C+ | 77-80 |
C | 73-77 |
C- | 70-73 |

D+ | 67-70 |
D | 63-67 |
D- | 60-63 |

F | Below 60 |

**Prelaboratory
Work:** Each
lab is worth 100 points, including prelaboratory work (max
= 10 points) and performing all the required work in the lab and completing
the lab report (max = 90 points). The prelab
work has a few questions to help you prepare for that week's laboratory. Hand
in your prelab work** before** the laboratory starts.

**Laboratory
Notebooks and Reports:** All
laboratory reports are typed on a word processor. Draw in sketches or tables
if your graphics and spreadsheet capabilities are limited. Please purchase a
lab notebook that has the carbonless copy feature to record your original data.
You will tear out the copies and hand them in along with the typed lab report
at the beginning of the next laboratory period.

**Other
Policies: **Computer
assisted analysis of the data, where appropriate, is expected. You can use DataStudio
or Microsoft Excel or other graphical software that you are familiar with to
plot your data and perform least squares fitting routines that handle uncertainty
estimates. EXCEPT FOR EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCES, ABSENCES
BEYOND ONE LAB CAN NOT BE MADE UP.

**Laboratory
Report Format:** Total
worth 90 points. Always include your name, date and name(s) of laboratory partner(s).

1) |
Drawing of experimental setup |
5 pts |

2) |
Record
of raw data obtained with labels |
10 pts |

3) |
Brief description how you did the experiment, i.e., procedure |
10 pts |

4) |
Experimental design, data analysis, and results including tables and graphs |
40 pts |

5) |
Answer all the questions at end |
20 pts |

6) |
Conclusions |
5 pts |

1) A simple sketch is best. This is a very useful skill when you design your own experiments.

2) Your original data should be attached to your report. Plan ahead and organize your data taking before any measurement. This is best done before the laboratory period. All data tables need to be labeled with what the quantity is and the appropriate units.

3) Briefly describe how you implemented the experiment.

4) When it comes to your own design and exploration, make sure you include all the details, such as principles or theory, experimental procedures, data tables, and graphs.

Data reduction, background subtraction, and error estimates are in this section. The computer can be used to great advantage to draw the graphs, to do the least squares fitting, and to provide you with error estimates based on the scatter in the data. All graphs must have a title and axes labeled with units. The conclusions drawn from each graph need to be described in complete sentences (one or two is usually sufficient). A graph with no statement as to what it means is not going to earn the maximum grade.

5) Answer any questions at the end of the write up. Do the results fit the theory within errors? If the final result is many standard deviations from the expected value, try to find reasons why.

6) A concise summary comparing theory and experiment demonstrates you know what you are doing and makes for a professional report. The summary should be brief and based on your experimental results.

Additional factors:

a) Have you covered a sufficient range of input parameters to really test the theory? The test of a theory is more convincing if you use extreme values of the parameters as well as values in the middle.

b) The instructor is also looking at your original data to see if you made initial trials before taking the final data set. Does the technique and final set up reflect knowledge gained on initial trials? Real science seldom goes right on the first try.

c) Are some points repeated to check repeatability? Have you looked over the data while you are taking it and retaken suspicious points? If you analyze your data before taking down the equipment, you may be able to spot troublesome points, and repeat them.

d) Overall, have you tried during the laboratory to undertake a credible experiment within the limitations of the available equipment?

e) Do discuss the results with your partners, and perhaps the instructor, if the results seem odd.

**Important University policies,
such as add/drop classes, cheating and plagiarism, grade appeal procedures,
can be found at **

**http://www.sonoma.edu/uaffairs/policies/studentinfo.shtml.**

Email me if you have questions or comments.

Last updated 10/19/2017